Department of Urology, The Helen Diller
Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University
of California, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco,
CA 94115, USA.
Epidemiological and prospective studies
indicate that comprehensive lifestyle changes
may modify the progression of prostate cancer.
However, the molecular mechanisms by which
improvements in diet and lifestyle might
affect the prostate microenvironment are
poorly understood. We conducted a pilot
study to examine changes in prostate gene
expression in a unique population of men
with low-risk prostate cancer who declined
immediate surgery, hormonal therapy, or
radiation and participated in an intensive
nutrition and lifestyle intervention while
undergoing careful surveillance for tumor
progression. Consistent with previous studies,
significant improvements in weight, abdominal
obesity, blood pressure, and lipid profile
were observed (all P < 0.05), and surveillance
of low-risk patients was safe.
profiles were obtained from 30 participants,
pairing RNA samples from control prostate
needle biopsy taken before intervention
to RNA from the same patient's 3-month postintervention
biopsy. Quantitative real-time PCR was used
to validate array observations for selected
transcripts. Two-class paired analysis of
global gene expression using significance
analysis of microarrays detected 48 up-regulated
and 453 down-regulated transcripts after
the intervention. Pathway analysis identified
significant modulation of biological processes
that have critical roles in tumorigenesis,
including protein metabolism and modification,
intracellular protein traffic, and protein
phosphorylation (all P < 0.05).
nutrition and lifestyle changes may modulate
gene expression in the prostate. Understanding
the prostate molecular response to comprehensive
lifestyle changes may strengthen efforts
to develop effective prevention and treatment.
Larger clinical trials are warranted to
confirm the results of this pilot study.